Vladikavkaz is the capital of the Republic North Ossetia-Alania (RNO-A). In 1774 North Ossetia voluntarily joined Russia. In 1784 on the Military-Georgian Road at the entrance to Daryal gorge near Ossetian village Dzaudzhikau Russian military fortress named Vladikavkaz was found. Some years later the tower was given the status of the town. It was administrative center of Terskaya oblast and during the Soviet power - the center of Mountainous Republic. Beginning from 1924 Vladikavkaz became the capital of North Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and in 1936 - capital of North Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
Now population of North Ossetian capital is more than 325 000 - almost half of the whole republican population. The fifth of citizens (more than 62 000) are young people of 18-30 years. Ethnic composition of the city is rather multiple - more than one hundred nationalities. Representatives of title nationality - the Ossetians - are nearly 60%, the second numerous group - the Russians - more than a quarter.
Economic potential of Vladikavkaz is comprised by nearly 100 large and medium-size enterprises - more than 70% of all republican industrial capacities.
Educational potential is comprised by 12 state and commercial institutes and their branches with general number of students being 34 000, (post graduates and candidates of science are being there as well); in 21 technical colleges and professional training schools there study nearly 10 000 young people; more than 46,5 thousand pupils go to 62 schools and boarding schools.
Thus the capital has all premises for getting education at all levels except for doctor of science. Now in Vladikavkaz the branch of Russian Academy of Science is being formed. It will broaden young people's perspectives in getting scientific degree of candidate science before they are 30 years, as well as create positive labor motivation at early stages. The last is rather important in the context of youth employment problem.
In 1998 135,6 thousand people (nearly the third of the whole able to work population) populated the Republic. According to the data of survey held by Republican Statistics Committee the number of economically active young people is 73,1 thousand (53,9% of the whole number). Among them 44,6 thousand (61,0%) are occupied in the republican economy and 28,5 thousand (38,9%) do not have any occupation, but they look for it and are classified, according to methodology of International Labor Organization, as unemployed. Of the whole number of unemployed young people registered at the Employment Service in October 1 1999 2,7 thousand (9,5%) are officially recognized as unemployed.
In 1999 10,0 thousand people applied to the Employment Service of RNO-A in search of work. 3,5 thousand (34,2% of the whole number of applied) of them are young people of 16-29 and 2,2 thousand (21,6%) are teenagers of 14-15 years. The largest relative amount of applied young people was registered in Vladikavkaz (47,5%), in Prigorodny region - 56,0%, in Kirovsky region - 31,7%, in Mozdoksky region - 26,6%, in Irafsky region - 28,8%. There are 47,5% of teenagers in Ardonsky region, 36,6% in Pravoberezhny, 30,1% in Alagirsky and 29,9% in Prigorodny regions.
The level of the registered unemployment in the Republic in 1999 decreased from 3,8% at the beginning of the year to 3,7% by 01.10.99. The average duration of unemployment period among young people changed. The average period of search in the Republic being 6,7 months, the average duration of unemployment among young people as of 01.10.99 was 5,8 months (on 01.01.99 - 7,6 months). Young people from agricultural regions of the Republic (duration of unemployment there is 7,2 months) face special difficulties while looking for job.
The problem of utmost importance is creation of facilities for job placement of those entering labor life for the first time and reduction unemployment duration for the rest part of unemployed youth. Special attention is paid to job placement of graduates of different educational institutions. Educational institutions of primary, secondary and higher professional profile release from day time department nearly 9 000 specialists annually, the number of 1998-1999 academic year graduates increased as compared to 1996-1997 academic year by 12,0%.
6,3% of those finished secondary educational institutions in 1998 were claimed by employees' applications. At the same time, compared to the previous period, the number of graduates of higher educational establishments who were given assignments decreased from 31,2% to 24,8%. The level of distribution among those who finished professional training schools is much higher - 60,4% in 1998 compared to 50,2% in 1997. Correspondingly the number of graduates of these institutions applying to the Employment Service in 1999 is five times smaller than those from higher educational institutions and three times smaller than the number of graduates of secondary special colleges.
In 1999 859 (9,5% of the whole number of registered unemployed) graduates of higher, secondary special and professional-training institutions appealed to the Employment Service. Besides at the registered labor market in 1999 there were 3002 graduates of secondary schools who did not continue their studies and did not start to work. As a rule these are young people without any professional training. Thus one of the most important task of the Employment Service is professional training and job placement of young people entering the labor market for the first time.
In spite of the fact that in general the number of unemployed young people is decreasing, limitation of working places and high level of employees' requirements for workers' qualification level aggravated sharply the problem of job placement. Every third among unemployed young people, registered in the Employment Service, is graduate of secondary school or educational establishments of primary, secondary and higher professional education. 244 of graduates registered in the Employment Service, were given job. Thus only every third graduate can count for job placement.
Rather difficult is job placement of school graduates, as a rule they do not have any specialty. The problem of their job placement gradually develops into the problem of professional training. In 1999 the Employment Service assigned 224 secondary school graduates to professional training. Organization of professional training for young people promotes to the growth of their competition ability in labor market. In 1999 450 young people either having no profession or wishing to get the new one, were assigned for training. 226 of them were graduates of higher educational institutions, secondary special establishments and professional schools.
In the result of the carried out work in the period covered the level of job placement increased (graduates of higher educational institutions - from 7,2% to 9,7%; graduates of secondary special establishments - from 8,3% to 14,8%; graduates of professional-training schools - from 1,1% to 3,5%). However the level of job placement of graduates of educational institutions of secondary and primary professional training is still lower than the average republican index, because they are more liable to unemployment compared to, for example, released workers who have work experience and certain qualification.
The study of peculiarities of graduates labor market formation showed that compared to 1998 the part of graduates in the whole amount of manpower is practically the same. By 01.07.99 3621 educational establishments graduates (not taking in consideration secondary school graduates) have registered in the Employment Service. Compared to the previous period the number of those graduated from high educational institutions in the amount of graduates registered in the Employment Service increased and at the same time the number of young people who finished educational establishments of secondary and primary professional training reduced. Nevertheless the amount of graduates from secondary educational institutions and professional schools is 70% of all graduates.
In 1998-99 academic year the amount of specialists from daytime departments of higher educational institutions was 2856 - by 22,0% more than in 1996-97 academic year. 450 of them (15,8% of the whole amount) appealed to the Employment Service. As of 01.01.99 the major part of graduates from higher educational establishments registered in the Employment Service were young people who graduated from North Ossetian State University (29,8%) and North Caucasian Technological University (12,1%). These are specialists having qualification of teachers, lawyers, economists, technologists, engineers. Situation on labor market makes the unemployed graduates change their profession. In 1999 9 graduates of higher educational institutions were assigned for professional re-training (specialty cutter-designer) with further guarantee of job placement. Computer knowledge becomes obligatory for specialists and improves their chances in labor market. 24 young men have been re-trained for computer operator specialty.
As of 1998-99 academic year beginning the amount of graduates from daytime department of secondary special educational establishments was 2720, compared to the previous academic year their number increased by 2,6%. In 1999 56 graduates appealed to the Employment Service for assistance in job placement. Supply and demand analysis demonstrates the following: as well as in the previous year the most difficult is job placement of graduates of secondary special educational institutions having qualifications of accountant, economist, kindergarten mentor, legal advisor. Difficulties in job placement and discrepancy of graduates' professional education arise necessity in their re-training with further guarantee of job placement. In 1999 134 graduates of secondary special institutions were re-trained and given the second profession: 31 - medical nurse, 18 - accountant with computer knowledge, 8 - driver, 17 - welder, 6 - cutter-designer, etc.
In 1999 3,5 thousand students finished professional schools. 66 of them appealed to the Employment Service for job placement. Among those unclaimed graduates of professional schools were young people having specialty of knitter, confectioner and tailor. 24 (19,4%) graduates of professional schools, registered in the Employment Service, had to get the second profession because of their professional training discrepancy. Re-training presupposes guarantee of further job placement. Analysis shows that the major factors causing tension in the youth labor market and difficulties in their job placement are:
Organization of spare time is one of the most important components of youth policy. The capital proves its status in cultural respect in full degree: there are three drama theaters, musical theater, children's theater and philharmonic society, regional and art museums, one of the largest scientific libraries in North Caucasus, planetarium, House of children's art (and a number of analogous houses), nearly ten culture palaces, ten cinemas, three sport palaces (not counting departmental ones - almost ten) and four stadiums.
As one can see there are good basis for active and cognitive spare time. However these facilities are not always accessible. Besides we think that there is no broad and systematic activity in turning young people's attention to the available sources of health and knowledge that would form necessary precepts in them. As a result claims for these facilities and hence their impact are evaluated as weak or even extremely weak.
Weak action of pragmatic-positive motives - healthy way of life, erudition development - leads to young people's consciousness turning toward the worst behavior patterns. Rapid growth of cafes and restaurants with low controlled sale of alcohol drinks and cigarettes contribute to early initiating into detrimental habits and way of life. For the time being high prices are a strong restricting factor for the youth to practice this spare time activity. However, firstly, its surrogate forms - drinking of cheap alcohol drinks "under a tree" - is being developed and, secondly, the strive for "easy money" for this purpose - theft, robbery, pillage, driving away automobiles - is stimulated, thirdly, as the general level of well-being grows this kind of spare time activity will gradually become more and more accessible.
In this connection constant growth of antisocial behavior is seen - drugs addiction, prostitution, juvenile-youth delinquency, the last changing both qualitatively and quantitatively towards aggravation.
Obviously, as for spare time, youth policy should focus on purposeful work in developing specialized infrastructure for young people in the sphere of entertainment and "health industry".
During the last years a number of very important measures were taken in the field of legislative provision of youth policy. In February 1997 the Republican law "State youth policy" was adopted. It states a number of basic rights and the order of their realization. Among them are the following:
That very year President of North Ossetia-Alania issued the Decree about opening of personal accounts for each born child in the amount of 3 minimum salaries (250 rubles or 10$ US, from 01.07.2000 the sum will be 390 rubles or 14$ US). The Government found "Youth business chamber".
In accordance with the mentioned law the republican "Program of youth and teenagers employment" and Republican complex purpose program "Youth of Ossetia" for 2000-2001 were adopted. The last consists of 11 sub-programs in the following directions: citizenship and patriotism development; prevention of drug addiction and crime; employment; support of young family, enterprises, talented youth, youth and children's organizations, spare time organization; development of physical culture and sport, interregional and international cooperation, informational-analytical system; ecological education. The amount of expenses - 24 million rubles (approximately 1% of the republican budget for 2000).
We should mention, however, that the named sums are the small part of state expenditures in the field of youth policy. The structure of expenses can be performed as follows:
It is clear that sources and flows of finances are distributed unequally in these three directions. We dispose only republican data since it is impossible to separate volumes of financial programs and measures locally (we mean Vladikavkaz). At the same time we can say that since the capital is inhabited almost by the half of population, the major part of youth infrastructure and finances are located in the city.
Thus according to Youth Committee (YC) of North Ossetian Government in 1999 the sum of additional expenditures from republican budget was 1832 thousand rubles; from federal budget - 175 thousand rubles, non-budget flows - almost 268 thousand rubles. Of course the major part of basic expenditures is taken from the state budget as for additional assistance - state and non-budget finances in 1999 are quite comparable. Though this phenomena cannot be called "a trend", this is rather the first sign, since in the previous year there was no non-budget sources. The same can be said about federal expenses. As for republican budget additional expenses grew considerably: 1997 - 1194194 rubles; 1998 - 1185491 rubles. Besides expenses for city youth programs and activities goes in parallel from the corresponding budget: 1997 - 17282 rubles; 1998 - 45117 rubles; 1999 - 26000 rubles.
The main directions of additional expenses from Republican Youth Committee including all financial sources and their volumes in 1999 are: sports and tourism (nearly 260.000 rubles), spare time and developing activities (more than 290 000 rubles), interethnic cooperation (more than 105 000 rubles), drug addiction prevention (87 000 rubles), military-patriotic and health improving activities (more than 260 000 rubles), employment (more than 14 000 rubles), support of public movements (nearly 494 000rubles), informational provision (more than 64 000 rubles), sub-divisions of YC (more than 613 000 rubles), support of regional YC (nearly 63 000 rubles), "Young cadres" (nearly 12 000 rubles).
In the conclusion we should say that youth problems in Vladikavkaz and in Republic North Ossetia as a whole are a very complex matter. Legislative and executive power and public organizations pay much attention to their resolution. However this work is far from being perfect. . That is why the level of unemployment among young people is higher than in other groups, their financial independence is beneath criticism and their desire to marry and have children in constantly decreasing. The list may be continued. Naturally under such circumstances the level of social morality especially among young people declines.
Are there any perspectives for improvement and what are the ways towards it? We think that lately especially with the emergence of a new leader - V. Putin - on Russian political scene a new, absolutely different, long-expected attitude to social politics took shape. Just because it was so long-expected there are guarantees that the reform process will move rapidly both from above and below. And we hope that youth will change political indifference and sluggishness (the lowest index of attendance during elections) for social activity.